A trend across most areas where simulation-driven development is used is the ever increasing size and complexity of the systems under consideration, pushing established methods of modeling and simulation towards their limits. This paper complements existing surveys on large-scale modeling and simulation of physical systems by conducting expert surveys. We conducted a two-stage empirical survey in order to investigate research needs, current challenges as well as promising modeling and simulation paradigms. Furthermore, we applied the analytic hierarchy process method to prioritise the strengths and weakness of different modeling paradigms. The results of this study show that experts consider acausal modeling techniques to be suitable for modeling large scale systems, while causal techniques are considered less suitable.