The Weisfeiler-Leman procedure is a widely-used approach for graph isomorphism testing that works by iteratively computing an isomorphism-invariant coloring of vertex tuples. Meanwhile, a fundamental tool in structural graph theory, which is often exploited in approaches to tackle the graph isomorphism problem, is the decomposition into 2- and 3-connected components. We prove that the 2-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm implicitly computes the decomposition of a graph into its 3-connected components. Thus, the dimension of the algorithm needed to distinguish two given graphs is at most the dimension required to distinguish the corresponding decompositions into 3-connected components (assuming it is at least 2). This result implies that for k >= 2, the k-dimensional algorithm distinguishes k-separators, i.e., k-tuples of vertices that separate the graph, from other vertex k-tuples. As a byproduct, we also obtain insights about the connectivity of constituent graphs of association schemes. In an application of the results, we show the new upper bound of k on the Weisfeiler-Leman dimension of graphs of treewidth at most k. Using a construction by Cai, Fürer, and Immerman, we also provide a new lower bound that is asymptotically tight up to a factor of 2.
- Pub Date:
- August 2019
- Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics;
- Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science;
- Mathematics - Combinatorics
- 30 pages, 4 figures, full version of a paper accepted at MFCS 2019