The analysis of spatial observations on a sphere is important in areas such as geosciences, physics and embryo research, just to name a few. The purpose of the package rcosmo is to conduct efficient information processing, visualisation, manipulation and spatial statistical analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation and other spherical data. The package was developed for spherical data stored in the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelation (Healpix) representation. rcosmo has more than 100 different functions. Most of them initially were developed for CMB, but also can be used for other spherical data as rcosmo contains tools for transforming spherical data in cartesian and geographic coordinates into the HEALPix representation. We give a general description of the package and illustrate some important functionalities and benchmarks.