Models of the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies, and the Universe rely on our understanding of the amounts and chemical composition of the material returned by stars and supernovae. Stellar yields are obtained from stellar-evolution models, which currently lack predictive prescriptions of stellar mass loss, although it significantly affects stellar lifetimes, nucleosynthesis, and chemical ejecta. Galaxy properties are derived from observations of the integrated light of bright member stars. Stars in the late stages of their evolution are among the infrared-brightest objects in galaxies. An unrealistic treatment of the mass-loss process introduces significant uncertainties in galaxy properties derived from their integrated light. We describe current efforts and future needs and opportunities to characterize AGB outflows: driving mechanisms, outflow rates, underlying fundamental physical and chemical processes such as dust grain formation, and dependency of these on metallicity.