With nanoelectronics reaching the limit of atom-sized devices, it has become critical to examine how irregularities in the local environment can affect device functionality. Here, we characterize the influence of charged atomic species on the electrostatic potential of a semiconductor surface at the sub-nanometer scale. Using non-contact atomic force microscopy, two-dimensional maps of the contact potential difference are used to show the spatially varying electrostatic potential on the (100) surface of hydrogen-terminated highly-doped silicon. Three types of charged species, one on the surface and two within the bulk, are examined. An electric field sensitive spectroscopic signature of a single probe atom reports on nearby charged species. The identity of one of the near-surface species has been uncertain. That species, suspected of being boron or perhaps a negatively charged donor species, we suggest is of a character more consistent with either a negatively charged interstitial hydrogen or a hydrogen vacancy complex.