We present a labeled large-scale, high resolution chest x-ray dataset for the automated exploration of medical images along with their associated reports. This dataset includes more than 160,000 images obtained from 67,000 patients that were interpreted and reported by radiologists at Hospital San Juan Hospital (Spain) from 2009 to 2017, covering six different position views and additional information on image acquisition and patient demography. The reports were labeled with 174 different radiographic findings, 19 differential diagnoses and 104 anatomic locations organized as a hierarchical taxonomy and mapped onto standard Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) terminology. Of these reports, 27% were manually annotated by trained physicians and the remaining set was labeled using a supervised method based on a recurrent neural network with attention mechanisms. The labels generated were then validated in an independent test set achieving a 0.93 Micro-F1 score. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the largest public chest x-ray database suitable for training supervised models concerning radiographs, and the first to contain radiographic reports in Spanish. The PadChest dataset can be downloaded from http://bimcv.cipf.es/bimcv-projects/padchest/.