In this paper, we prove a quantum union bound that is relevant when performing a sequence of binary-outcome quantum measurements on a quantum state. The quantum union bound proved here involves a tunable parameter that can be optimized, and this tunable parameter plays a similar role to a parameter involved in the Hayashi-Nagaoka inequality (Hayashi & Nagaoka 2003 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 49, 1753-1768. (doi:10.1109/TIT.2003.813556)), used often in quantum information theory when analysing the error probability of a square-root measurement. An advantage of the proof delivered here is that it is elementary, relying only on basic properties of projectors, Pythagoras' theorem, and the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. As a non-trivial application of our quantum union bound, we prove that a sequential decoding strategy for classical communication over a quantum channel achieves a lower bound on the channel's second-order coding rate. This demonstrates the advantage of our quantum union bound in the non-asymptotic regime, in which a communication channel is called a finite number of times. We expect that the bound will find a range of applications in quantum communication theory, quantum algorithms and quantum complexity theory.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A
- Pub Date:
- January 2019
- Quantum Physics;
- Computer Science - Information Theory;
- Mathematical Physics
- v2: 23 pages, includes proof, based on arXiv:1208.1400 and arXiv:1510.04682, for a lower bound on the second-order asymptotics of hypothesis testing for i.i.d. quantum states acting on a separable Hilbert space