We propose possible high-temperature superconductivity (SC) with singlet s±-wave pairing symmetry in the single-orbital Hubbard model on the square-octagon lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping terms. Three different approaches are engaged to treat with the interacting model for different coupling strengths, which yield consistent results for the s± pairing symmetry. We propose octagraphene, i.e., a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged into this lattice, as a possible material realization of this model. Our variational Monte Carlo study for the material with realistic coupling strength yields a pairing strength comparable with the cuprates, implying a similar superconducting critical temperature between the two families. This study also applies to other materials with similar lattice structure.