The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multi-protein signaling complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are master regulators of cell growth, metabolism, survival and autophagy. Two of the subunits of these complexes are mLST8 and Raptor, β-propeller proteins that stabilize the mTOR kinase and recruit substrates, respectively. Here we report that the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT plays a key role in mTORC assembly and signaling by folding both mLST8 and Raptor. A high resolution (4.0 Å) cryo-EM structure of the human mLST8-CCT intermediate isolated directly from cells shows mLST8 in a near-native state bound to CCT deep within the folding chamber between the two CCT rings, and interacting mainly with the disordered N- and C-termini of specific CCT subunits of both rings. These findings describe a unique function of CCT in mTORC assembly and a distinct binding site in CCT for mLST8, far from those found for similar β-propeller proteins.