A stellar occultation by the large trans-Neptunian object (90482) Orcus was predicted to occur on 2017 March 07. Observations were made at five sites in North and South America: the 0.6-m Astronomical Telescope of the University of Stuttgart (ATUS) at Sierra Remote Observatories, California; Las Cumbres Observatory's 1-m telescope at McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas (ELP); NASA's 3-m InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i; the 0.6-m Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA-CT) telescope at Cerro Tololo, Chile; and the 4.1-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope on Cerro Pachón, Chile. High-speed, visible-wavelength images were taken at all sites, in addition to simultaneous K-band images at the IRTF. Solid-body occultations were observed from two sites. Post-event reconstruction suggested an occultation of two different stars observed from two different sites. Follow-up, speckle imaging revealed a second star, which verified that the occulting body in both cases was Orcus' satellite, Vanth. The two single-chord detections, with an anomalously large timing delay in one chord, have lengths of 291 ± 125 km and 434.4 ± 2.4 km. The observations, combined with a non-detection at a nearby site, allow a tight constraint of 443 ± 10 km to be placed on Vanth's size (assuming it is spherical). A 3-σ upper limit of 1-4 μbar (depending on constituent) is found for a global Vanth atmosphere. The immersion and emersion profiles are slightly different, with atmospheric constraints 40% higher on immersion than on emersion. No rings or other material were detected within ten thousand kms of Vanth, and beyond 8010 km from Orcus, to the tightest optical depth limit of ∼0.1 at ∼5 km scale. The occultation probed as close as 5040 km from Orcus, placing an optical depth limit of ∼0.3 at ∼5 km scale on any encircling material at that distance.