With the rapid development of the Internet, e-commerce plays an important role in people's lives, and the recommendation system is one of the most critical technologies. However, as the number of users and the scale of goods increase sharply, the traditional collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm has a large computational complexity in the part of calculating the user similarity, which leads to a low recommendation efficiency. In response to the above problems, this paper introduces the concept of quantum computing theory. The user score vector is first prepared into a quantum state, the similarity score is calculated in parallel, then the similarity information is saved into the quantum bit, and finally the similar user is searched by the Grover search algorithm. Compared with the traditional collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm, the time complexity of the collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on Grover algorithm can be effectively reduced under certain conditions.