Aggregated Negative Feedback in a Generalized Lorenz Model
In this study, we first present a generalized Lorenz model (LM) with M modes, where M is an odd number that is greater than three. The generalized LM (GLM) is derived based on a successive extension of the nonlinear feedback loop (NFL) with additional high wavenumber modes. By performing a linear stability analysis with σ = 10 and b = 8/3, we illustrate that: (1) within the 3D, 5D, and 7D LMs, the appearance of unstable nontrivial critical points requires a larger Rayleigh parameter in a higher-dimensional LM and (2) within the 9DLM, nontrivial critical points are stable. By comparing the GLM with various numbers of modes, we discuss the aggregated negative feedback enabled by the extended NFL and its role in stabilizing solutions in high-dimensional LMs. Our analysis indicates that the 9DLM is the lowest order generalized LM with stable nontrivial critical points for all Rayleigh parameters greater than one. As shown by calculations of the ensemble Lyapunov exponent, the 9DLM still produces chaotic solutions. Within the 9DLM, a larger critical value for the Rayleigh parameter, rc = 679.8, is required for the onset of chaos as compared to a rc = 24.74 for the 3DLM, a rc = 42.9 for the 5DLM, and a rc = 116.9 for the 7DLM. In association with stable nontrivial critical points that may lead to steady-state solutions, the appearance of chaotic orbits indicates the important role of a saddle point at the origin in producing the sensitive dependence of solutions on initial conditions. The 9DLM displays the coexistence of chaotic and steady-state solutions at moderate Rayleigh parameters and the coexistence of limit cycle and steady-state solutions at large Rayleigh parameters. The first kind of coexistence appears within a smaller range of Rayleigh parameters in lower-dimensional LMs (i.e. 24.06 < r < 24.74 within the 3DLM) but in a wider range of Rayleigh parameters within the 9DLM (i.e. 679.8 < r < 1058). The second kind of coexistence has never been reported in high-dimensional Lorenz systems.
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos
- Pub Date:
- Lorenz model;
- nonlinear feedback loop;
- nonlinear negative feedback