At the end of their evolution, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars undergo strong pulsation, mass loss, and dust production. Their mass loss results in substantial chemical and dust enrichment of the interstellar medium. Dust evolution models and isotope abundances in presolar grains suggest that AGB stars play a key role in both dust evolution and the star formation process. They are also the brightest stars in galaxies, potentially dominating in the near-infrared. As a result, AGB stars have a significant influence on the evolution and appearance of their host galaxies and thus must be accounted for when interpreting a galaxy's integrated light. I will highlight new results that describe the impact AGB stars have on galaxies, including how AGB stars are used to probe galaxy evolution.