Cosmic Rays From Supermassive Black Holes: Fluxes on the Earth And Extragalactic Diffuse Gamma and Neutrino Emission
Cosmic rays at ultra-high energies (E > 4·1019 eV) accelerated by the electric fields of supermassive black holes are discussed. Two models of the acceleration are examined: when particles are accelerated by an electric field in an accretion disk and when they are accelerated by the field induced near a black hole. It is assumed that in these models generation of particles at energies in the 4·1019-1021 eV range is equiprobable, in addition a monoenergetic particle injection spectrum is possible. In the latter case, black holes with masses of 109 solar masses are considered. It turns out that cosmic rays with these initial spectra make a small contribution to the flux of particles detected on the earth. In intergalactic space, however, these particles create a significant flux of diffuse gamma-ray emission compared to data obtained by the Fermi LAT (on board the Fermi space observatory). The intensity of neutrinos produced during propagation of cosmic rays in intergalactic space is also calculated. It is found that the model intensity of the cascade neutrinos is much lower than the measured intensity of astrophysical neutrinos. It is concluded that cosmic rays accelerated accelerated in these processes make a small contribution to the flux of particles on the earth, but these cosmic rays should be taken into account when analyzing the components of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission.