Two-fluid simulations of waves in the solar chromosphere. II. Propagation and damping of fast magneto-acoustic waves and shocks
Waves and shocks traveling through the solar chromospheric plasma are influenced by its partial ionization and weak collisional coupling, and may become susceptible to multi-fluid effects, similar to interstellar shock waves. In this study, we consider fast magneto-acoustic shock wave formation and propagation in a stratified medium, that is permeated by a horizontal magnetic field, with properties similar to that of the solar chromosphere. The evolution of plasma and neutrals is modeled using a two-fluid code that evolves a set of coupled equations for two separate fluids. We observed that waves in neutrals and plasma, initially coupled at the upper photosphere, become uncoupled at higher heights in the chromosphere. This decoupling can be a consequence of either the characteristic spatial scale at the shock front, that becomes similar to the collisional scale, or the change in the relation between the wave frequency, ion cyclotron frequency, and the collisional frequency with height. The decoupling height is a sensitive function of the wave frequency, wave amplitude, and the magnetic field strength. We observed that decoupling causes damping of waves and an increase in the background temperature due to the frictional heating. The comparison between analytical and numerical results allows us to separate the role of the nonlinear effects from the linear ones on the decoupling and damping of waves.