Temperature and pressure variability in mid-1 latitude low atmosphere and stratosphere-ionosphere coupling
This study presents the continuation of the analysis of variations of atmospheric and space weather parameters above Iberian Peninsula along two years near the 24th solar cycle maximum presented in Morozova et al. . Previously, the first mode of the principal component analysis was shown to correlate with the lower stratospheric ozone and anti-correlate with cosmic ray flux. In this paper we discuss the second mode that, to our mind, suggests a coupling between the stratosphere and ionosphere. This second mode, located in the low and middle stratosphere and explaining 6-15\% of temperature and 2.5\% of geopotential height variations, positively correlates with the middle-stratospheric ozone content. Among locally measured space weather parameters, this atmospheric mode negatively correlates with the ionospheric total electron content. The stratospheric-ionospheric coupling was analyzed using the correlation and wavelet analyses. Found similarities between variations of the stratospheric and ionospheric parameters were tested with a method allowing estimation of the causal nature of the found relationships, the convergent cross mapping (CCM). Strong evidences for the stratospheric-ionospheric coupling were obtained for the winter 2012-2013 that is characterized by the east QBO phase and a strong sudden stratospheric warming event.