Integer linear programming (ILP) encompasses a very important class of optimization problems that are of great interest to both academia and industry. Several algorithms are available that attempt to explore the solution space of this class efficiently, while requiring a reasonable compute time. However, although these algorithms have reached various degrees of success over the years, they still face considerable challenges when confronted with particularly hard problem instances, such as those of the MIPLIB 2010 library. In this work we propose a radically different non-algorithmic approach to ILP based on a novel physics-inspired computing paradigm: Memcomputing. This paradigm is based on digital (hence scalable) machines represented by appropriate electrical circuits with memory. These machines can be either built in hardware or, as we do here, their equations of motion can be efficiently simulated on our traditional computers. We first describe a new circuit architecture of memcomputing machines specifically designed to solve for the linear inequalities representing a general ILP problem. We call these self-organizing algebraic circuits, since they self-organize dynamically to satisfy the correct (algebraic) linear inequalities. We then show simulations of these machines using MATLAB running on a single core of a Xeon processor for several ILP benchmark problems taken from the MIPLIB 2010 library, and compare our results against a renowned commercial solver. We show that our approach is very efficient when dealing with these hard problems. In particular, we find within minutes feasible solutions for one of these hard problems (f2000 from MIPLIB 2010) whose feasibility, to the best of our knowledge, has remained unknown for the past eight years.