Model-Aided Wireless Artificial Intelligence: Embedding Expert Knowledge in Deep Neural Networks Towards Wireless Systems Optimization
Deep learning based on artificial neural networks is a powerful machine learning method that, in the last few years, has been successfully used to realize tasks, e.g., image classification, speech recognition, translation of languages, etc., that are usually simple to execute by human beings but extremely difficult to perform by machines. This is one of the reasons why deep learning is considered to be one of the main enablers to realize the notion of artificial intelligence. In order to identify the best architecture of an artificial neural network that allows one to fit input-output data pairs, the current methodology in deep learning methods consists of employing a data-driven approach. Once the artificial neural network is trained, it is capable of responding to never-observed inputs by providing the optimum output based on past acquired knowledge. In this context, a recent trend in the deep learning community is to complement pure data-driven approaches with prior information based on expert knowledge. In this work, we describe two methods that implement this strategy, which aim at optimizing wireless communication networks. In addition, we illustrate numerical results in order to assess the performance of the proposed approaches compared with pure data-driven implementations.