A generalization of Birch's theorem and vertex-balanced steady states for generalized mass-action systems
Mass-action kinetics and its generalizations appear in mathematical models of (bio-)chemical reaction networks, population dynamics, and epidemiology. The dynamical systems arising from directed graphs are generally non-linear and difficult to analyze. One approach to studying them is to find conditions on the network which either imply or preclude certain dynamical properties. For example, a vertex-balanced steady state for a generalized mass-action system is a state where the net flux through every vertex of the graph is zero. In particular, such steady states admit a monomial parametrization. The problem of existence and uniqueness of vertex-balanced steady states can be reformulated in two different ways, one of which is related to Birch's theorem in statistics, and the other one to the bijectivity of generalized polynomial maps, similar to maps appearing in geometric modelling. We present a generalization of Birch's theorem, by providing a sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of vertex-balanced steady states.