Limits on StellarMass Compact Objects as Dark Matter from Gravitational Lensing of Type Ia Supernovae
Abstract
The nature of dark matter (DM) remains unknown despite very precise knowledge of its abundance in the Universe. An alternative to new elementary particles postulates DM as made of macroscopic compact halo objects (MACHO) such as black holes formed in the very early Universe. Stellarmass primordial black holes (PBHs) are subject to less robust constraints than other mass ranges and might be connected to gravitationalwave signals detected by the Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO). New methods are therefore necessary to constrain the viability of compact objects as a DM candidate. Here we report bounds on the abundance of compact objects from gravitational lensing of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Current SNe data sets constrain compact objects to represent less than 35.2% (Joint Lightcurve Analysis) and 37.2% (Union 2.1) of the total matter content in the Universe, at 95% confidence level. The results are valid for masses larger than ∼0.01 M_{☉} (solar masses), limited by the size SNe relative to the lens Einstein radius. We demonstrate the mass range of the constraints by computing magnification probabilities for realistic SNe sizes and different values of the PBH mass. Our bounds are sensitive to the total abundance of compact objects with M ≳0.01 M_{☉} and complementary to other observational tests. These results are robust against cosmological parameters, outlier rejection, correlated noise, and selection bias. PBHs and other MACHOs are therefore ruled out as the dominant form of DM for objects associated to LIGO gravitational wave detections. These bounds constrain earlyUniverse models that predict stellarmass PBH production and strengthen the case for lighter forms of DM, including new elementary particles.
 Publication:

Physical Review Letters
 Pub Date:
 October 2018
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.141101
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1712.02240
 Bibcode:
 2018PhRvL.121n1101Z
 Keywords:

 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
 High Energy Physics  Phenomenology;
 High Energy Physics  Theory
 EPrint:
 16 pages, 9 figures. Discussion on finite SNe size and outliers expanded. Version accepted for publication in PRL