The nonlinear characteristics of dust acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless complex plasma containing adiabatic electrons and ions and negatively charged dust grains (including the effects of modified polarization force) are investigated. Employing the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is derived. The analytical solution for the KdVB equation is discussed. Also, the bifurcation and phase portrait analyses are presented to recognize different types of possible solutions. The dependence of the properties of nonlinear DA waves on the system parameters is investigated. It has been shown that an increase in the value of the modified polarization parameter leads to a fast decay and diminishes the oscillation amplitude of the DA damped cnoidal wave. The relevance of our findings and their possible applications to laboratory and space plasma situations is discussed.