Molecular doping enabled scalable blading of efficient hole-transport-layer-free perovskite solar cells
The efficiencies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are now reaching such consistently high levels that scalable manufacturing at low cost is becoming critical. However, this remains challenging due to the expensive hole-transporting materials usually employed, and difficulties associated with the scalable deposition of other functional layers. By simplifying the device architecture, hole-transport-layer-free PSCs with improved photovoltaic performance are fabricated via a scalable doctor-blading process. Molecular doping of halide perovskite films improved the conductivity of the films and their electronic contact with the conductive substrate, resulting in a reduced series resistance. It facilitates the extraction of photoexcited holes from perovskite directly to the conductive substrate. The bladed hole-transport-layer-free PSCs showed a stabilized power conversion efficiency above 20.0%. This work represents a significant step towards the scalable, cost-effective manufacturing of PSCs with both high performance and simple fabrication processes.