It makes use of the trade complementarity index, trade integration index and export concentration index to conduct an in-depth analysis of trade development process and the import and export structure of agricultural products between China with Russia from 2006 to 2017. The results show that degree of integration of China’s agricultural trade with Russia continues to increase, and its trade structure is highly complementary. At the same time, the types of agricultural trade between them have increased significantly. The trade pattern of agricultural products is dominated by medium- and low-end primary agricultural products in China and Russia. The share of deep-processed agricultural products is relatively small, and the trade structure of agricultural products is monotonous, the bilateral trade potential has not yet been fully realized between China with Russia. Under the background of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative and the construction of China- Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, the trade potential between China and Russia will increase rapidly and the trade space will further expand.