Isolation and morphological characterization of fungi from deteriorated old Chinese manuscripts from Central Library Universitas Indonesia
Fungi, which cause deterioration of old Chinese manuscripts in Indonesia, are rarely known. The collected old Chinese manuscripts of Central Library Universitas Indonesia (Perpustakaan Pusat UI) showed a possible deterioration of fungi. The aims of this study were to isolate and morphologically characterize fungi from two deteriorated old Chinese manuscripts from Ruang Naskah Central Library Universitas Indonesia. The old Chinese manuscripts were observed for signs of biodeterioration by using stereomicroscope and two manuscripts were selected. Samples from the manuscripts were collected by using swab method with sterile cotton swabs. Fungal isolates were isolated by culture-dependent method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Two deteriorated old Chinese manuscripts showed brown or black spots and spore formation on the surface of manuscripts. Six fungal isolates were selected based on morphological type differences according to the monographs. Based on morphological characteristics, five fungal isolates from the deteriorated old Chinese manuscripts belonged to four genera of the anamorphic fungi as follows: Cladosporium (1 isolate), Curvularia (2 isolates), Penicillium (1 isolate), and Sarocladium (1 isolate). One isolate could not be morphologically characterized to the genus level. This study showed that fungi from various genera could be isolated from deteriorated old Chinese manuscripts. Phylogeny-based identification using the data set of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences is required to determine the species identities of the fungal strains.