Context. The observation of planets in their formation stage is a crucial but very challenging step in understanding when, how, and where planets form. PDS 70 is a young pre-main sequence star surrounded by a transition disk, in the gap of which a planetary-mass companion has recently been discovered. This discovery represents the first robust direct detection of such a young planet, possibly still at the stage of formation.
Aims: We aim to characterize the orbital and atmospheric properties of PDS 70 b, which was first identified on May 2015 in the course of the SHINE survey with SPHERE, the extreme adaptive-optics instrument at the VLT.
Methods: We obtained new deep SPHERE/IRDIS imaging and SPHERE/IFS spectroscopic observations of PDS 70 b. The astrometric baseline now covers 6 yr, which allowed us to perform an orbital analysis. For the first time, we present spectrophotometry of the young planet which covers almost the entire near-infrared range (0.96-3.8 μm). We use different atmospheric models covering a large parameter space in temperature, log g, chemical composition, and cloud properties to characterize the properties of the atmosphere of PDS 70 b.
Results: PDS 70 b is most likely orbiting the star on a circular and disk coplanar orbit at 22 au inside the gap of the disk. We find a range of models that can describe the spectrophotometric data reasonably well in the temperature range 1000-1600 K and log g no larger than 3.5 dex. The planet radius covers a relatively large range between 1.4 and 3.7 RJ with the larger radii being higher than expected from planet evolution models for the age of the planet of 5.4 Myr.
Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive data set on the orbital motion of PDS 70 b, indicating a circular orbit and a motion coplanar with the disk. The first detailed spectral energy distribution of PDS 70 b indicates a temperature typical of young giant planets. The detailed atmospheric analysis indicates that a circumplanetary disk may contribute to the total planetflux.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- September 2018
- planets and satellites: atmospheres;
- planets and satellites: individual: PDS 70;
- techniques: spectroscopic;
- methods: observational;
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
- accepted for publication in A&