Deep generative models are reported to be useful in broad applications including image generation. Repeated inference between data space and latent space in these models can denoise cluttered images and improve the quality of inferred results. However, previous studies only qualitatively evaluated image outputs in data space, and the mechanism behind the inference has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study is to numerically analyze changes in activity patterns of neurons in the latent space of a deep generative model called a "variational auto-encoder" (VAE). What kinds of inference dynamics the VAE demonstrates when noise is added to the input data are identified. The VAE embeds a dataset with clear cluster structures in the latent space and the center of each cluster of multiple correlated data points (memories) is referred as the concept. Our study demonstrated that transient dynamics of inference first approaches a concept, and then moves close to a memory. Moreover, the VAE revealed that the inference dynamics approaches a more abstract concept to the extent that the uncertainty of input data increases due to noise. It was demonstrated that by increasing the number of the latent variables, the trend of the inference dynamics to approach a concept can be enhanced, and the generalization ability of the VAE can be improved.
- Pub Date:
- December 2017
- Statistics - Machine Learning;
- Computer Science - Machine Learning;
- Computer Science - Neural and Evolutionary Computing;
- Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition
- 20 pages, 9 figures