Key Science Goals for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA): Report from the ngVLA Science Advisory Council
This document describes some of the fundamental astrophysical problems that require observing capabilities at millimeter- and centimeter wavelengths well beyond those of existing, or already planned, telescopes. The results summarized in this report follow a solicitation from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to develop key science cases for a future U. S.-led radio telescope, the "next generation Very Large Array" (ngVLA). The ngVLA will have roughly 10 times the collecting area of the Jansky VLA, operate at frequencies from 1 GHz to 116 GHz with up to 20 GHz of bandwidth, possess a compact core for high surface-brightness sensitivity, and extended baselines of at least hundreds of kilometers and ultimately across the continent to provide high-resolution imaging. The ngVLA builds on the scientific and technical legacy of the Jansky VLA and ALMA, and will be designed to provide the next leap forward in our understanding of planets, galaxies, and black holes.