We study equivariant coarse homology theories through an axiomatic framework. To this end we introduce the category of equivariant bornological coarse spaces and construct the universal equivariant coarse homology theory with values in the category of equivariant coarse motivic spectra. As examples of equivariant coarse homology theories we discuss equivariant coarse ordinary homology and equivariant coarse algebraic $K$-homology. Moreover, we discuss the cone functor, its relation with equivariant homology theories in equivariant topology, and assembly and forget-control maps. This is a preparation for applications in subsequent papers aiming at split-injectivity results for the Farrell-Jones assembly map.