Fourier analysis and representation of circular distributions in terms of their Fourier coefficients, is quite commonly discussed and used for model-free inference such as testing uniformity and symmetry etc. in dealing with 2-dimensional directions. However a similar discussion for spherical distributions, which are used to model 3-dimensional directional data, has not been fully developed in the literature in terms of their harmonics. This paper, in what we believe is the first such attempt, looks at the probability distributions on a unit sphere, through the perspective of spherical harmonics, analogous to the Fourier analysis for distributions on a unit circle. Harmonic representations of many currently used spherical models are presented and discussed. A very general family of spherical distributions is then introduced, special cases of which yield many known spherical models. Through the prism of harmonic analysis, one can look at the mean direction, dispersion, and various forms of symmetry for these models in a generic setting. Aspects of distribution free inference such as estimation and large-sample tests for these symmetries, are provided. The paper concludes with a real-data example analyzing the longitudinal sunspot activity.