We describe semiparametric estimation and inference for causal effects using observational data from a single social network. Our asymptotic result is the first to allow for dependence of each observation on a growing number of other units as sample size increases. While previous methods have generally implicitly focused on one of two possible sources of dependence among social network observations, we allow for both dependence due to transmission of information across network ties, and for dependence due to latent similarities among nodes sharing ties. We describe estimation and inference for new causal effects that are specifically of interest in social network settings, such as interventions on network ties and network structure. Using our methods to reanalyze the Framingham Heart Study data used in one of the most influential and controversial causal analyses of social network data, we find that after accounting for network structure there is no evidence for the causal effects claimed in the original paper.