The Kuramoto model describes synchronization behavior among coupled oscillators and enjoys successful application in a wide variety of fields. Many of these applications seek phase-coherent solutions, i.e., equilibria of the model. Historically, research has focused on situations where the number of oscillators, $n$, is extremely large and can be treated as being infinite. More recently, however, applications have arisen in areas such as electrical engineering with more modest values of $n$. For these, the equilibria can be located by finding the real solutions of a system of polynomial equations utilizing techniques from algebraic geometry. However, typical methods for solving such systems locate all complex solutions even though only the real solutions give equilibria. In this paper, we present an algorithm to locate only the real solutions of the model, thereby shortening computation time by several orders of magnitude in certain situations. This is accomplished by choosing specific equilibria representatives and the consequent algebraic decoupling of the system. The correctness of the algorithm (that it finds only and all the equilibria) is proved rigorously. Additionally, the algorithm can be implemented using interval methods so that the equilibria can be approximated up to any given precision without significantly more computational effort. We also compare this solving approach to other computational algebraic geometric methods. Furthermore, analyzing this approach allows us to prove, asymptotically, that the maximum number of equilibria grows at the same rate as the number of complex solutions of a corresponding polynomial system. Finally, we conjecture an upper bound on the maximum number of equilibria for any number of oscillators which generalizes the known cases and is obtained on a range of explicitly provided natural frequencies.
- Pub Date:
- April 2017
- Mathematics - Optimization and Control;
- Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry;
- Mathematics - Dynamical Systems;
- Keywords: Kuramoto model, equilibria, univariate solving, homotopy continuation, numerical algebraic geometry