This theoretical paper introduces a new way to view and characterize teaching and learning astronomy. It describes a framework, based on results from empirical data, analyzed through standard qualitative research methodology, in which a theoretical model for vital competencies of learning astronomy is proposed: Reading the Sky. This model takes into account not only disciplinary knowledge but also disciplinary discernment and extrapolating three-dimensionality. Together, these constitute the foundation for the competency referred to as Reading the Sky. In this paper, I describe these concepts and how I see them being connected and intertwined to form a new competency model for learning astronomy and how this can be used to inform astronomy education to better match the challenges students face when entering the discipline of astronomy: The Spiral of Teaching and Learning. Two examples are presented to highlight how this model can be used in teaching situations.