We cast Amari's natural gradient in statistical learning as a specific case of Kalman filtering. Namely, applying an extended Kalman filter to estimate a fixed unknown parameter of a probabilistic model from a series of observations, is rigorously equivalent to estimating this parameter via an online stochastic natural gradient descent on the log-likelihood of the observations. In the i.i.d. case, this relation is a consequence of the "information filter" phrasing of the extended Kalman filter. In the recurrent (state space, non-i.i.d.) case, we prove that the joint Kalman filter over states and parameters is a natural gradient on top of real-time recurrent learning (RTRL), a classical algorithm to train recurrent models. This exact algebraic correspondence provides relevant interpretations for natural gradient hyperparameters such as learning rates or initialization and regularization of the Fisher information matrix.