Bitcoin, Ethereum and other blockchain-based cryptocurrencies, as deployed today, cannot scale for wide-spread use. A leading approach for cryptocurrency scaling is a smart contract mechanism called a payment channel which enables two mutually distrustful parties to transact efficiently (and only requires a single transaction in the blockchain to set-up). Payment channels can be linked together to form a payment network, such that payments between any two parties can (usually) be routed through the network along a path that connects them. Crucially, both parties can transact without trusting hops along the route. In this paper, we propose a novel variant of payment channels, called Sprites, that reduces the worst-case "collateral cost" that each hop along the route may incur. The benefits of Sprites are two-fold. 1) In Lightning Network, a payment across a path of $\ell$ channels requires locking up collateral for $\Theta(\ell\Delta)$ time, where $\Delta$ is the time to commit an on-chain transaction. Sprites reduces this cost to $O(\ell + \Delta)$. 2) Unlike prior work, Sprites supports partial withdrawals and deposits, during which the channel can continue to operate without interruption. In evaluating Sprites we make several additional contributions. First, our simulation-based security model is the first formalism to model timing guarantees in payment channels. Our construction is also modular, making use of a generic abstraction from folklore, called the "state channel," which we are the first to formalize. We also provide a simulation framework for payment network protocols, which we use to confirm that the Sprites construction mitigates against throughput-reducing attacks.