The hydrogen used in making ammonia and other industrial reactions is produced mainly through steam reformation of methane over nickel catalysts. This high-temperature process also releases carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Upham et al. used nickel dissolved in molten bismuth to pyrolyze methane to release hydrogen and form carbon, which floats to the surface of the melt, where it can be removed. Carbon formation on steam-reforming catalysts is usually a deactivating side reaction, but in the new process, the carbon can be stored or incorporated into composite materials.