On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0 ×104 years . We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26 M☉ , in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17 - 1.60 M☉ , with the total mass of the system 2.7 4-0.01+0.04M☉ . The source was localized within a sky region of 28 deg2 (90% probability) and had a luminosity distance of 4 0-14+8 Mpc , the closest and most precisely localized gravitational-wave signal yet. The association with the γ -ray burst GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ -ray bursts. Subsequent identification of transient counterparts across the electromagnetic spectrum in the same location further supports the interpretation of this event as a neutron star merger. This unprecedented joint gravitational and electromagnetic observation provides insight into astrophysics, dense matter, gravitation, and cosmology.