Asymptotic safety provides a mechanism for constructing a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity valid on all length scales. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the gravitational renormalization group flow which controls the scaling of couplings and correlation functions at high energy. In this work we use a functional renormalization group equation adapted to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism for evaluating the gravitational renormalization group flow on a cosmological Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Besides possessing the non-Gaussian fixed-point characteristic for asymptotic safety the setting exhibits a second family of non-Gaussian fixed points with a positive Newton's constant and real critical exponents. The presence of these new fixed points alters the phase diagram in such a way that all renormalization group trajectories connected to classical general relativity are well defined on all length scales. In particular a positive cosmological constant is dynamically driven to zero in the deep infrared. Moreover, the scaling dimensions associated with the universality classes emerging within the causal setting exhibit qualitative agreement with results found within the ɛ -expansion around two dimensions, Monte Carlo simulations based on lattice quantum gravity, and the discretized Wheeler-DeWitt equation.