We investigate the effects related to vortex-core deformations when vortices approach each other. As a result of these vortex-core deformations, the vortex-vortex interaction effectively acquires an attractive component leading to a variety of vortex patterns typical for systems with nonmonotonic repulsive-attractive interaction, such as stripes and labyrinths. The core deformations are anisotropic and can induce frustration in the vortex-vortex interaction. In turn, this frustration has an impact on the resulting vortex patterns, which are analyzed in the presence of additional random pinning, as a function of the pinning strength. This analysis can be applicable to vortices in multiband superconductors or to vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates.