Beneficial effect of boron in layered sodium-ion cathode materials - The example of Na2/3B0.11Mn0.89O2
Sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a complementary drop-in technology to lithium-ion batteries because they promise lower cost and a higher degree of environmental friendliness. Among other reasons, these benefits come from the use of manganese-based materials, whose stabilization via cation substitution is intensively studied to improve the electrochemical performance. Although multiple elements have been considered as substituent, surprisingly, boron has not been reported for layered sodium-ion cathode materials up to date. Our investigation of layered Na2/3B0.11Mn0.89O2 reveals an unexpectedly good electrochemical performance, with charge and discharge capacities of more than 175 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 and 135 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1. The measured capacities are among the highest ever reported for sodium-based layered oxides in the potential range of 4.0-2.0 V vs. Na/Na+.