Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)
The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology and Resource Utilisation; Infrastructure and Human aspects; Moon, Space and Society. The latest technical achievements and results of recent missions (SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS and LRO) were discussed at a plenary panel and technical sessions, with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) still in operation. Chang'E1 has generated many useful results for the community. Four plenary panel sessions were conducted: 1. What are the plans? 2. New mission results; 3. From space stations and robotic precursors to lunar bases; 4. Moon, Space, Society The participants summarised their findings, discussions and recommend o continue efforts by agencies and the community on previous ICEUM recommendations, and the continuation of the ILEWG forum, technical groups activities and pilot projects. 1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole- Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements - Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy - It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide inputs to future missions, including a gap analysis of needed measurements. Highly resolved global data sets are required. Autonomous landing and hazard avoidance will depend on the best topographic map of the Moon, achievable by combining shared data. - New topics such as life sciences, partial gravity processes on the Moon should be followed in relation to future exploration needs. 2. Technologies and resources - A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential. 3. Infrastructures and human aspects - It is recommended to have technical sessions and activities dealing with different aspects of human adaptation to space environments, the modeling of sub-systems, microbial protection and use of inflatable technologies - While the Moon is the best and next logical step in human exploration, we should make best use of the space stations as stepping stones for exploration and human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit. - Further research is needed on lunar dust aspects in regard to humans and interaction with habitats. We note high interest in CELSS for Moon and Mars bases, and recommend further research and development. - We recommend the development and use of terrestrial analogues research sites and facilities, for technology demonstrations, comparative geology and human performance research, and public engagement. We endorse the proposal of development of a site at La Reunion for international Moon-Mars analogue research. 4. Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers - We consider that the current legal regime as set out in the Outer Space Treaty and the Moon agreement are satisfactory for current and future missions, but may require further clarification for future exploration. Issues of transparency and security will need to be addressed. - Great things are happening for Young Lunar Explorers, with inspiring missions and hands-on activities as coordinated by ILEWG. Lunar exploration is encouraging students of all ages to pursue higher education. - More possibilities for participatory engagement should be offered to the society for example via interdisciplinary activities with the humanities. - We appreciate the work from COSPAR panel on Exploration PEX that should be shared further. - Continued cooperation should be enforced at all levels. The space community feels strongly that joining the forces of space faring nations to explore the Moon should be seriously implemented, with the views of expanding a Global Robotic Village and building in the long run a Manned International Lunar Base. - We propose that a panel be formed through ILEWG with the help of IAF and Chinese Society of Astronautics in cooperation with space agencies, COSPAR and other stakeholders in order to initiate a permanent International Space Exploration Governance Forum We, the participants of the GLUC-ICEUM11 conference, commit to an enhanced global cooperation towards international lunar exploration for the benefit of humankind. Endorsed by the delegates of GLUC-ICEUM11" References:  1st International Lunar Workshop, Balsiger H. et al., Editors, European Space Agency, 1994. ESA-SP-1170.  2nd International Lunar Workshop, Kyoto, H. Mizutani, editor, Japan Space Forum Publisher, 1997.  3rd International Lunar Workshop, Moscow 1998, E. Galimov, editor.  ICEUM4, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462, B.H. Foing & M. Perry, editors.  ICEUM5, Hawaii Nov 2003, Durst S.M. et al, Editors, Vol 108, 1-576 pp, Science and Technology Series, American Astronautical Society, 2004.  ICEUM6, Udaipur 2004, Bhandari N., Editor, Journal Earth System Science, India, 114, No6, Dec 2005, pp. 573-841.  ICEUM7, Toronto Sept 2005, sci.esa.int/ilewg.  ICEUM8, Beijing July 2006, Journal of Chinese Society of Astronautics, Vol. 28 Sup., 2007, Ji W., Editor.  ICEUM9, Sorrento, Italy, Foing B., Espinasse S., Kosters G., Editors. http://sci.esa.int/iceum9, Dec. 2007),  Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B.H., Cellino, A. Editors, The Moon and Near Earth Objects, ASR Vol 37, 1, 2006.  Foing, B.H. et al editors, 'Astronomy and Space Science from the Moon', ASR 14, 6, 1994.  Ip W.-H., Foing, B.H., Masson Ph.L., editors, The Moon and Mars, ASR Vol 23, 11, 1999.  Foing, B.H. et al, editor, Lunar Exploration, Planetary and Space Science, Vol 50, 14-15, 2002.  Foing, B.H., Heather, D. editors, 'Lunar Exploration 2000', ASR Vol 30, Nr 8, 2002.  Huntress, W. et al 'The next steps in exploring deep space - A cosmic study by the IAA', Acta Astronautica, Vol 58, Issues 6-7, 2006, p302-377.  http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/43654-declaration-iceum10-leag-srr-florida-2008/  Ehrenfreund P. et al (COSPAR planetary exploration panel report) 2012, ASR Vol 49, Nr 1, pp. 2-48.
41st COSPAR Scientific Assembly
- Pub Date:
- July 2016