A spoof attack, a subset of presentation attacks, is the use of an artificial replica of a biometric in an attempt to circumvent a biometric sensor. Liveness detection, or presentation attack detection, distinguishes between live and fake biometric traits and is based on the principle that additional information can be garnered above and beyond the data procured by a standard authentication system to determine if a biometric measure is authentic. The goals for the Liveness Detection (LivDet) competitions are to compare software-based fingerprint liveness detection and artifact detection algorithms (Part 1), as well as fingerprint systems which incorporate liveness detection or artifact detection capabilities (Part 2), using a standardized testing protocol and large quantities of spoof and live tests. The competitions are open to all academic and industrial institutions which have a solution for either softwarebased or system-based fingerprint liveness detection. The LivDet competitions have been hosted in 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015 and have shown themselves to provide a crucial look at the current state of the art in liveness detection schemes. There has been a noticeable increase in the number of participants in LivDet competitions as well as a noticeable decrease in error rates across competitions. Participants have grown from four to the most recent thirteen submissions for Fingerprint Part 1. Fingerprints Part 2 has held steady at two submissions each competition in 2011 and 2013 and only one for the 2015 edition. The continuous increase of competitors demonstrates a growing interest in the topic.