Understanding visual reality involves acquiring common-sense knowledge about countless regularities in the visual world, e.g., how illumination alters the appearance of objects in a scene, and how motion changes their apparent spatial relationship. These regularities are hard to label for training supervised machine learning algorithms; consequently, algorithms need to learn these regularities from the real world in an unsupervised way. We present a novel network meta-architecture that can learn world dynamics from raw, continuous video. The components of this network can be implemented using any algorithm that possesses three key capabilities: prediction of a signal over time, reduction of signal dimensionality (compression), and the ability to use supplementary contextual information to inform the prediction. The presented architecture is highly-parallelized and scalable, and is implemented using localized connectivity, processing, and learning. We demonstrate an implementation of this architecture where the components are built from multi-layer perceptrons. We apply the implementation to create a system capable of stable and robust visual tracking of objects as seen by a moving camera. Results show performance on par with or exceeding state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. The tracker can be trained in either fully supervised or unsupervised-then-briefly-supervised regimes. Success of the briefly-supervised regime suggests that the unsupervised portion of the model extracts useful information about visual reality. The results suggest a new class of AI algorithms that uniquely combine prediction and scalability in a way that makes them suitable for learning from and --- and eventually acting within --- the real world.
- Pub Date:
- July 2016
- Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
- 38 pages, 20 figures, v3. Added several citations to relevant papers, expanded the discussion of existing approach in deep learning