Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) is an importan- t generative model modeling vectorial data. While applying an RBM in practice to images, the data have to be vec- torized. This results in high-dimensional data and valu- able spatial information has got lost in vectorization. In this paper, a Matrix-Variate Restricted Boltzmann Machine (MVRBM) model is proposed by generalizing the classic RBM to explicitly model matrix data. In the new RBM model, both input and hidden variables are in matrix forms which are connected by bilinear transforms. The MVRBM has much less model parameters, resulting in a faster train- ing algorithm while retaining comparable performance as the classic RBM. The advantages of the MVRBM have been demonstrated on two real-world applications: Image super- resolution and handwritten digit recognition.