Appearance of causality in process matrices when performing fixed-basis measurements for two parties
The recently developed framework for quantum theory with no global causal order allows for quantum processes in which operations in local laboratories are neither causally ordered nor in a probabilistic mixture of definite causal orders. The causal relation between the laboratories is described by the process matrix. We show that, if the inputs of the laboratories are measured in a fixed basis, one can introduce an effective process matrix which is operationally indistinguishable from the original one. This effective process matrix can be obtained by applying the von Neumann-Lüders update rule for nonselective measurements to the original process matrix and, in the bipartite case, it is compatible with a definite causal order. The latter extends the original Oreshkov et al. proof where one considers that both the measurement of the input and the re-preparation of the output are performed in a fixed basis.