A critical role for alternative polyadenylation factor CPSF6 in targeting HIV-1 integration to transcriptionally active chromatin
HIV-1 requires integration for efficient gene expression, and the local chromatin environment significantly influences the level of HIV-1 transcription. Silent, integrated proviruses constitute the latent HIV reservoir. As HIV-1 commandeers cellular factors to dictate its preferred integration sites, these interactions consequentially influence latency. We examined the impact of polyadenylation specificity factor CPSF6, which binds HIV-1 capsid, and the integrase-binding chromatin reader LEDGF/p75 on viral infection and integration site distribution. Integration sites were determined in cells knocked down or knocked out for one or both host factors. Our data indicate that CPSF6 directs HIV-1 to transcriptionally active chromatin, where LEDGF/p75 predominantly directs the positions of integration within genes. These findings clarify the roles of cellular forces that dictate HIV-1 integration preferences and hence virus pathogenesis.