Using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the origin of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) that are often observed in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We found that the radiation force due to the spectral lines generates strong winds (line-driven disk winds) that are launched from the inner region of accretion disks (∼30 Schwarzschild radii). A wide range of black hole masses (MBH) and Eddington ratios (ɛ) was investigated to study the conditions causing the line-driven winds. For MBH = 106-109 M⊙ and ɛ = 0.1-0.7, funnel-shaped disk winds appear, in which dense matter is accelerated outward with an opening angle of 70°-80° and with 10% of the speed of light. If we observe the wind along its direction, the velocity, the column density, and the ionization state are consistent with those of the observed UFOs. As long as obscuration by the torus does not affect the observation of X-ray bands, the UFOs could be statistically observed in about 13%-28% of the luminous AGNs, which is not inconsistent with the observed ratio (∼40%). We also found that the results are insensitive to the X-ray luminosity and the density of the disk surface. Thus, we can conclude that UFOs could exist in any luminous AGNs, such as narrow-line Seyfert 1s and quasars with ɛ > 0.1, with which fast line-driven winds are associated.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
- Pub Date:
- February 2016
- accretion disks-galaxies: active-methods: numerical;
- Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
- 14 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ