The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates.