Inter-isoform Hetero-dimerization of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A1, 1A9, and 2B7 and Impacts on Glucuronidation Activity
Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play a pivotal role in phase II metabolism by catalyzing the glucuronidation of endobiotics and xenobiotics. The catalytic activities of UGTs are highly impacted by both genetic polymorphisms and oligomerization. The present study aimed to assess the inter-isoform hetero-dimerization of UGT1A1, 1A9, and 2B7, including the wild type (1A1*1, 1A9*1, and 2B7*1) and the naturally occurring (1A1*1b, 1A9*2/*3/*5, and 2B7*71S/*2/*5) variants. The related enzymes were double expressed in Bac-to-Bac systems. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) revealed stable hetero-dimerization of UGT1A1, 1A9, and 2B7 allozymes. Variable FRET efficiencies and donor-acceptor distances suggested that genetic polymorphisms resulted in altered affinities to the target protein. In addition, the metabolic activities of UGTs were differentially altered upon hetero-dimerization via double expression systems. Moreover, protein interactions also changed the regioselectivity of UGT1A9 for querectin glucuronidation. These findings provide in-depth understanding of human UGT dimerization as well as clues for complicated UGT dependent metabolism in humans.