Bounded energy exchange as an alternative to the third law of thermodynamics
Abstract
This paper introduces a postulate explicitly forbidding the extraction of an infinite amount of energy from a thermodynamic system. It also introduces the assumption that no measuring equipment is capable of detecting arbitrarily small energy exchanges. The Kelvin formulation of the second law is reinterpreted accordingly. Then statements related to both the unattainability version and the entropic version of the third law are derived. The value of any common thermodynamic potential of a onecomponent system at absolute zero of temperature is ascertained if some assumptions with regard to the state space can be made. The point of view is the phenomenological, macroscopic and nonstatistical one of classical thermodynamics.
 Publication:

Annals of Physics
 Pub Date:
 October 2016
 DOI:
 10.1016/j.aop.2016.07.031
 Bibcode:
 2016AnPhy.373..665H
 Keywords:

 Third law;
 Absolute zero;
 Entropy;
 Enthalpy;
 Perpetual motion machine