Precise radial velocities of giant stars. IX. HD 59686 Ab: a massive circumstellar planet orbiting a giant star in a 13.6 au eccentric binary system
Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Échelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries.
Aims: We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar and stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616).
Methods: We obtained high-precision RV measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. To distinguish between RV variations that are due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots, we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to characterize the system in more detail, we obtained high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope.
Results: We report the probable discovery of a giant planet with a mass of mp sin I = 6.92-0.24+0.18 MJup orbiting at ap = 1.0860-0.0007+0.0006 au from the giant star HD 59686 A. In addition to the planetary signal, we discovered an eccentric (eB = 0.729-0.003+0.004) binary companion with a mass of mB sin I = 0.5296-0.0008+0.0011 M⊙ orbiting at a close separation from the giant primary with a semi-major axis of aB = 13.56-0.14+0.18 au.
Conclusions: The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second-generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime need to be seriously considered to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- October 2016
- planetary systems;
- planets and satellites: formation;
- planets and satellites: fundamental parameters;
- planets and satellites: gaseous planets;
- planets and satellites: detection;
- planets and satellites: general;
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
- 14 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in A&